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Belloli, M. Handbike aerodynamics: wind tunnel versus track tests. Elsevier B. Blocken, B. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, , 69— Computational Fluid Dynamics for urban physics: Importance, scales, possibilities, limitations and ten tips and tricks towards accurate and reliable simulations.
Building and Environment, 91, — Crouch, T. Riding against the wind: a review of competition cycling aerodynamics. Sports Engineering, 20 2 , 81— Defraeye, T. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of cyclist aerodynamics: Performance of different turbulence-modelling and boundary-layer modelling approaches.
Journal of Biomechanics, 43 12 , — Fintelman, D. CFD simulations of the flow around a cyclist subjected to crosswinds. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, , 31— Franke, J. Best practice guideline for the CFD simulation of flows in the urban environment.
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Two-equation eddy-viscosity turbulence models for engineering applications. Note that this occurred in spite of the show a standing vortex with similar size and position, applied steady RANS approach. Therefore, for all cases, the wind upstream of the building.
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In addition, also the large separation area on the building roof is reproduced, although the recirculation area is larger with CFD than with PIV. However, the size and position of the upstream For Case 1. This is also the reason for the differences in most accurate. Remarkably, not only the upstream, indoor presented, because they are considered less reliable due to effects and downstream streamwise wind speed ratios are predicted Fig.
Validation results for Case 1. Validation results for Case 2. Validation results for a Case 1. The results are shown in opening is not well predicted, the agreement along the centreline Figs. The following observations are made: inside the building and downstream of the building is quite good.
4. Urban CFD recommandation
While the effects 5. CFD simulations: results and effects of physical and on the outdoor streamwise wind speed along the centreline, numerical diffusion upstream and downstream of the ventilation openings, seem to be quite limited, the effects on the indoor air speed along 5. Effects of physical diffusion the centreline are large. The increase of the physical diffusion in this area of low air speed leads to higher indoor air The effects of physical diffusion are analysed by variation of speed values along the centreline.
The effects are similar for the parameter a in Eq. This is an illustration of the fact building is wider with increasing physical diffusion. Analysis of numerical diffusion on the CFD results streamwise wind speed ratio along the centreline by variation of the discretisation and pressure interpolation scheme for a Case 1. These differences in the jet characteristics explain the wider. This explains the somewhat larger indoor streamwise differences along the centreline shown in Fig.
As opposed to the previous cases, the effects of physical diffusion on the stream- wise wind speed along the centreline are much less pro- 5. Effects of numerical diffusion nounced. This can be explained by focusing on the wind- velocity pattern in Fig. The effects of numerical or Fig. As opposed to the cases in Figs. However, the was already shown in Fig. In addition, Fig. A further discussion on this matter has of second-order discretisation schemes and standard instead of been provided by Blocken et al.
The impact on the stream- wise wind speed ratio along the centreline is shown for the four cases. The results show that the effects of numerical diffusion on 7. Summary and conclusions the outdoor streamwise wind speed upstream of the inlet ventilation opening are small, but that the effects on the indoor This paper has presented CFD simulations of wind-induced streamwise wind speed and also on the outdoor streamwise wind cross-ventilation of buildings. The 3D steady Reynolds-Averaged speed downstream of the outlet opening are large to very large. The simulations have focused on four Tominaga et al.
The following limitations of turbulent kinetic energy within a realistic range. Along the centreline between the openings, these multi-zone buildings. It is expected that these effects will ever showed that increased physical and numerical diffusion be at least equally, and probably even more important, for decreased the size of the upstream standing vortex and increased buildings in suburban and urban areas, which are dominated the spread of the jet entering the buildings.
It was concluded that by high wind speed jets through passages between buildings diffusion is an important transport mechanism in cross-ventila- see e. Stathopoulos and Storms, ; Stathopoulos and Wu, tion of buildings, and that special care is needed to select the right ; To and Lam, ; Blocken et al. CFD simulation of the atmo- spheric boundary layer: wall function problems. Blocken, B.soirejewsvi.tk
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Wind environmental conditions Tominaga et al. CFD simulation for pedestrian wind intensity. Caciolo, M. Numerical simulation of single-sided tions are often highly unstructured grids, on which convergence ventilation using RANS and LES and comparison with full-scale experiments. Casey, M. Momentum Transfer in Boundary Layers.
Hemi- grids on which convergence can be obtained with second-order sphere Publishing Corporation, New York. Ventilation performance prediction for buildings: a method Mochida, A. Methods for overview and recent applications. Building and Environment 44 4 , — Computational analysis of wind driven natural ventila- improve indoor thermal comfort.
Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial tion in buildings.
Energy and Buildings 38 5 , — Aerodynamics 93, — Fluent Inc. Fluent 6. Murakami, S.
Energy and Buildings 36 12 , — Freitas, C.