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Morocco rejoined the African Union in , becoming its 55th Member State, but has not yet ratified the African Charter.

The ACHPR holds two ordinary sessions a year and may also hold extraordinary sessions upon the request of the Chairperson of the Commission or a majority of Commissioners. During the biannual ordinary sessions, the ACHPR considers periodic reports submitted by States parties, as well as reports from members of the Commission and its Special Mechanisms rapporteurs, committees, and working groups.

The Commission and Court are charged with interpreting and applying a number of regional human rights instruments, which include:. The special mechanisms are dedicated to protecting and promoting specific rights or the rights of specific vulnerable groups. The ACHPR has established various working groups, special rapporteurships, and committees to advance specific thematic areas of work and to guide its functioning.

The responsibilities of these special mechanisms include gathering and disseminating information on respect for the human rights of certain vulnerable groups. The special mechanisms use this information to provide States or the Commission with guidance toward effectively securing human rights in Africa. The military regime was peacefully settled and power placed into the hands of civilian leaders. Brazil managed to surmount a difficult period of financial and social problems in the latter half of the last century. In , the economy was failing and there was a huge rise in unemployment and inflation.

The President, Dilma Rousseff, was impeached in May after a political scandal. Language is one of the strongest elements of Brazil's national unity with Portuguese the spoken language of nearly percent of the population.

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The only exceptions are some members of Amerindian groups and pockets of immigrants primarily from Japan and South Korea , who have not yet learned Portuguese. There difference between the Portuguese spoken in Brazil and that spoken in Portugal comparable to the differences in English spoken in the United States and that spoken in the United Kingdom. Within Brazil, there are no dialects of Portuguese, but only moderate regional variation in accent, vocabulary, and use of personal nouns, pronouns, and verb conjugations.

Variations tend to diminish as a result of mass media, especially national television networks that are viewed by the majority of Brazilians.

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When the national team plays, the country is one. Having suffered some years of economic depression, Brazil is fast becoming a country that has an up and coming aspirational youth who are keen to develop business investment and strong commercial relationships. Successful business dealings in Brazil depends very much upon having a keen perception of the commercial culture of the country.

Thank you for reading our guide to Brazil. We hope you found it useful.

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If you have anything to add to our country profile please contact us via the form below as we are keen to ensure accuracy. Some origin countries are supporting long-term and long-distance linkages between emigrants and their countries of origin. Holding dual or multiple citizenship provides an important link between Diasporas and their home countries.

Citizenship and residency rights also make it easier to travel and own land. About half of the African countries with available information allow dual citizenship.

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Origin countries can strengthen Diaspora ties by allowing their citizens who reside abroad to vote without returning. African countries have different modalities for voting. Some countries allow their citizens to vote abroad for presidential and legislative elections. Some countries give nationals abroad voting rights, and some reserve specific number of seats in parliament for Diaspora representatives. In addition, some African countries that confer voting rights on their Diasporas, require advanced registration or allow voting in person only.

General History of Africa

In other countries, voting by postal ballot is also possible. Those who permanently live abroad can register with an embassy or consulate in the country of their permanent residence and can vote there.

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  • But the costs involved in registration may be high. For example, South Africa approved voting rights for Global South Africans in , but was unable to register voters in most foreign countries for the elections. Only some 16, voters out of the estimated 1. Similarly, members of the Nigerian Diaspora requested the Independent National Electoral Commission to register Nigerians abroad so they could participate in the elections. Rwanda provides a useful example of an effort to engage the Diaspora through reaching out and encouraging voting by foreign citizens.

    Some governments have established institutions such as councils or decentralized entities that handle migrant community issues. However, several of these initiatives have not maintained their momentum or have been discontinued with a change of government. As members of the Diaspora today in the world come from very differentiated backgrounds, and emigrated for various reasons, their relations and contributions to host societies are as well very diverse.

    The interaction between both also depends on the country of destination, as some nations are more creole than others.

    In the Caribbean nations for instance, such as in Jamaica, Haiti or Cuba, the community of African descent had a huge impact on the culture of the country, as migrations were very important in terms of numbers but also very influential in the cultural sphere[xviii]. In any case, the presence of an important African Diaspora in a given place creates opportunities for cultural exchanges between members of the different nations. National policies aimed at strengthening Diasporas are more and more put into place, notably through the action of embassies abroad. In fact, they are often the place where different nationals from a community gather, for instance during special events organized by the embassies themselves, in the perspective of enhancing the feeling of belonging to a national community[xix].

    The integration of Diasporas within the framework of foreign policies, encompassed in the scope of the action of embassies, indicates the growing interest of public authorities for this group of citizens living abroad.

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    It also contributes to promoting African cultures and nations, which are not always understood in the western world. Originally, members of the Diaspora started organizing themselves and constituting associations in order to facilitate the integration of new migrants in the societies of destination. They are still of great help as of today on this matter, but they are also very much oriented towards keeping the connection alive between members of the Diaspora and their homeland, and towards contributing to the development of their country of origin, which they often leave because of deplorable living conditions.

    Due to the different nature of the migrations[xx], the idea of returning to their homeland, which used to be very present for members of older generations of diaspora, is not as strong any more. Installed, and often well integrated in host societies, members of the diaspora often do not want to go back to their motherland to live once they retire, as the situation in their countries would not allow them to enjoy a decent life.

    In many cases, throughout the year, the choice is made to settle definitively in the North.

    African constitutions

    The impact of Diasporas as a phenomenon is also to be seen on the second generation of migrants. Generally speaking, children of African migrants, born in Europe, tend to emphasis the European part of their identity over their African origin, while still feeling attached to Africa and claiming to be of part of the African people.

    One of the questions remaining is whether or not to include migrants within the African continent. The African Union chooses not to, as it states in its definition of the diaspora that it must necessarily be located outside of the continent[xxiii]. One of the grounds for this is that Africans who emigrate outside of Africa, mostly in the Northern hemisphere, are often wealthier, better-educated and more organized as Africans migrating within the continent, and have therefore more means of contributing to their home country development, thereby better fitting the second part of the definition of the African Union[xxiv].

    This idea also stems from the fact that, for a very long time, migration movements have been analysed mostly as being a stream from the South to the North, while other geographically located migrations did not seem as relevant to social scientists. However, South-South migrations are more important numerically, and continue to grow in importance and in volume, therefore drawing more and more academic and research attention.

    This is true as well for Intra-African migrations. If this phenomenon is to be differentiated from Diasporas living outside of the continent, it nevertheless plays a rather important role in the development of their country of origin. Intra-African migrations are not a new phenomenon. Long-lasting forms of mobility have existed in the continent, such as nomadism, or travels along commercial routes. As of today, the total number of is African migrants is estimated to be around Intra-African migrations tend to be more developmental in nature, almost always related to the search of better opportunities in neighbouring countries.

    This type of migration, being closer geographically speaking, allows for the subsistence of stronger ties between the migrant and his home country, in terms of cultural bonds as well as in terms of economic contribution to development. The diaspora within the African continent also tends to maintain rather close relations with the diaspora outside of the continent. In conclusion, the African Diaspora within Africa is not to be ignored, as over half of the African migrants circulate within the continent.

    If there are differences in nature between the diaspora outside of the continent, mostly in the northern hemisphere, and the diaspora within Africa, both contribute greatly to the development of their countries of origin and destination.